By the time Deng took power, there was widespread support among the elite for economic reforms. By the late s, food supplies and production had become so deficient that government officials were warning that China was about to repeat the " disaster of ", the famines which killed tens of millions during the Great Leap Forward. Under the new policy, peasants were able to exercise formal control of their land as long as they sold a contracted portion of their crops to the government. A dual-price system was introduced, in which State-owned enterprise reform state-owned industries were allowed to sell any production above the plan quota, and commodities were sold at both plan and market prices, allowing citizens to avoid the shortages of the Maoist era.
Before the collapse of international trade that followed the onset of the Great DepressionChina's share of world trade and its ratio of foreign trade to GDP achieved levels that were not regained for over sixty years.
By the time Deng took power, there was widespread support among the elite for economic reforms. As the de facto leader, Deng's policies faced opposition from party conservatives but were extremely successful in increasing the country's wealth. By the late s, food supplies and production had become so deficient that government officials were warning that China was about to repeat the " disaster of ", the famines which killed tens of millions during the Great Leap Forward.
Under the new policy, peasants were able to exercise formal control of their land as long as they sold a contracted portion of their crops to the government. A dual-price system was introduced, in which State-owned enterprise reform state-owned industries were allowed to sell any production above the plan quota, and commodities were sold at both plan and market prices, allowing citizens to avoid the shortages of the Maoist era.
Moreover, the adoption of Industrial Responsibility System s further promote the development of state-owned enterprise by allowing individuals or groups to manage the enterprise by contract. Private businesses were allowed to operate for the first time since the Communist takeover, and they gradually began to make up a greater percentage of industrial output.
Deng created a series of special economic zones for foreign investment that were relatively free of the bureaucratic regulations and interventions that hampered economic growth. These regions became engines of growth for the national economy.
Controls on private businesses and government intervention continued to decrease, and there was small-scale privatization of state enterprises which had become unviable.
A notable development was the decentralization of state control, leaving local provincial leaders to experiment with ways to increase economic growth and privatize the state sector. Although the economy grew quickly during this period, economic troubles in the inefficient state sector increased.
Heavy losses had to be made up by state revenues and acted as a drain upon the economy. China's government slowly expanded recognition of the private economy, first as a "complement" to the state sector and then as an "important component" of the socialist market economy.
In andlarge-scale privatization occurred, in which all state enterprises, except a few large monopolies, were liquidated and their assets sold to private investors. Between andthe number of state-owned enterprises decreased by 48 percent.
These moves invoked discontent among some groups, especially laid-off workers of state enterprises that had been privatized. Also inChina was able to surpass Japan as the largest economy in Asia. Observers note that the government adopted more egalitarian and populist policies.
At least firms have revised their corporate charters to allow the CPC greater influence in corporate management, and to reflect the party line. Note the rapid increase since reform in the late s.
China's economic growth since the reform has been very rapid, exceeding the East Asian Tigers. Economists estimate China's GDP growth from to at between 9.
For the period —, Chinese GDP per capita increased from 2. GDP per capita, and from Per capita incomes grew at 6. Agriculture and light industry have largely been privatized, while the state still retains control over some heavy industries.
Despite the dominance of state ownership in finance, telecommunications, petroleum and other important sectors of the economy, private entrepreneurs continue to expand into sectors formerly reserved for public enterprise.
Prices have also been liberalized. Data from FAOyear Production in metric ton. During the pre-reform period, Chinese agricultural performance was extremely poor and food shortages were common.Reform and opening up to foreign trade of mining, China's rapid development, one of the main reasons is that the reform of the foreign trade system.
This paper discus from the point of view of economic history, economic theory and history of related analysis, of the reform of China's foreign trade system, the occurrence of historical background. Nov 15, · China’s meteoric rise over the past half century is one of the most striking examples of the impact of opening an economy up to global markets.
SEOUL, April 8 (Xinhua) -- China's reform and opening-up policy has contributed to economic growth domestically and globally for the past four decades, a South Korean trade expert said. Results of reform and opening-up policies in China Results of reform and opening-up policies Reform and opening-up policy effected a shift of not only the economic, but .
The Opening-up Policy has been and will continue to be the driving force of China’s reform in every field, including in educational administration and school running system. The Road to China’s Second Reform and Opening Up. Through a serious of policy blunders, China’s leadership revealed the inexperience of China’s economic policymakers and the underdevelopment of its financial institutions to manage the excess volatility and the uncertainty of the future direction of Chinese reforms.