Key terms The need for a decision arises in business because a manager is faced with a problem and alternative courses of action are available. In deciding which option to choose he will need all the information which is relevant to his decision; and he must have some criterion on the basis of which he can choose the best alternative.
National Content Standards Addressed Standard 2: Marginal Decision Making Effective decision making requires comparing the additional costs of alternatives with the additional benefits. Most choices involve doing a little more or a little less of something: Few choices are all-or-nothing decisions; they usually involve getting a little more or one thing by giving up a little of something else.
To determine the best level of consumption of a product, people must compare the additional benefits with the additional costs of consuming a little more or a little less.
|Information: OPTIMAL DECISIONS USING MARGINAL ANALYSIS||December 11, Since all the economic resources are scarce, we all need to make choices. One might think while reading the O level lessons that we make choices whether to use this or that.|
Marginal benefit is the change in total benefit resulting from an action. Marginal cost is the change in total cost resulting from an action. As long as the marginal benefit of an activity exceeds the marginal cost, people are better off doing more of it; when the marginal cost exceeds the marginal benefit, they are better off doing less of it.
Allocation Mechanisms Different methods can be used to allocate goods and services. People acting individually or collectively through government must choose which methods to use to allocate different kinds of goods and services. No method of distributing goods and services can satisfy all wants.
There are different ways to distribute goods and services by prices, command, majority rule, contests, force, first-come-first-served, sharing equally, lottery, personal characteristics, and othersand there are advantages and disadvantages to each.
Scarcity requires the use of some distribution method, whether the method is selected explicitly or not. National economies vary in the extent to which they rely on government directives central planning and signals from private markets to allocate scarce goods, services, and productive resources.
Comparing the benefits and costs of different allocation methods in order to choose the method that is most appropriate for some specific problem can result in more effective allocations and a more effective overall allocation system. Incentives People respond predictably to positive and negative incentives.
Changes in incentives cause people to change their behavior in predictable ways. Incentives can be monetary or non-monetary. Acting as consumers, producers, workers, savers, investors, and citizens, people respond to incentives in order to allocate their scarce resources in ways that provide the highest possible returns to them.
Gains from Voluntary Trade Voluntary exchange occurs only when all participating parties expect to gain. This is true for trade among individuals or organizations within a nation, and among individuals or organizations in different nations.
People voluntarily exchange goods and services because they expect to be better off after the exchange.“While real-time volume, margin and product decisions made by secondary and capital market teams have a massive impact on finance’s ability to forecast the P&L and balance sheet.”.
Economics Definition: Thinking at the Margin. Written on Monday, August 22, by Dus10 D:: Basically, it is an analysis to find the optimal return on actions.
Basically, you decide when to stop. This is why we make decisions based on the best overall output for our effort.
This may not seem important for you personally, but it can. Samuel Kramer, An Economic Analysis of Criminal Attempt: Marginal Deterrence and the Optimal Structure of Sanctions, 81 J. Crim. L. & Criminology () suggests that utility maximizing decisions are made not only at the initiation of a crime, but also throughout its commission.
Optimal decisions are made at the margin. Economics is the study of the choices consumers, business managers, and government officials make to attain their goals, given their scarce resources. We must make choices CHAPTER 1 | Economics: Foundations and Models CHAPTER 1 | Economics: Foundations and Models.
Mar 07, · Best Answer: The 'best' (optimal) economic decisions are made at the 'edge' (margin) of a situation. For example if your selling a product the 'best' price to sell your product at, is the very highest the market will bare (the 'edge').Status: Resolved.
Optimal Search for Product Information Abstract determined by the marginal cost of search and the importance of each product attribute, i.e., the derive the optimal pricing decision by a rm, taking into account the e ect of price on information search.3 2Weitzman ().