Assess, plan, do, review: The graduated approach to SEN Written by: In a previous article, I made reference to the fact that inclusive high-quality teaching is the first step in responding to those with SEN or indeed those without and shared some of the elements that make up an inclusive lesson High-quality and inclusive teaching practices, SecEd, September
Difficulty changing activities or handling disruptions to routines Perseveration i. Similarly, protective factors do not rule out the presence of a disability.
However, the presence of risk indicators warrants substantial and serious efforts to facilitate early learning success, because many children at risk respond positively to high quality instruction and support.
Observations may be informal or may follow a standard observation protocol; in either case, they should be conducted multiple times and in varying contexts e. In many cases, an extended period of observations will be necessary. Observations should provide a description of the frequency, consistency, and severity of the behaviors causing concerns in relation to contextual demands.
When indicated, a referral should be made to appropriate professionals for further evaluation and, if warranted, provision of supports and services should be recommended.
When a screening, a review of risk indicators and protective factors, and systematic observations suggest that a child is at risk for LD, professionals should conduct periodic evaluations to ascertain whether development follows expected patterns.
These evaluations should occur across different settings and should consider multiple perspectives offered by caregivers and professionals. E valuations should focus on developmental norms across domains e. The use of a single instrument or procedure does not constitute a comprehensive evaluation.
Practitioners should use culturally and linguistically sensitive instruments to ensure appropriate assessment of children with potential LD.
Time-limited placement in a diagnostic preschool setting can be a useful part of the comprehensive evaluation for addressing diagnostic questions and determining the effectiveness of various evidence-based interventions for the child. Early services and supports If a learning problem or delay in development has been suggested based on screening, review of risk indicators and protective factors, systematic observation, and, if indicated, comprehensive evaluation, then the priority should be to ensure that services and supports based on individual needs and strengths are available.
Services and supports for young children should be evidence-based, developmentally appropriate, family-centered, and culturally and linguistically sensitive.
Professionals must ensure that their findings and recommendations for services and supports are sensitive to all cultural and linguistic backgrounds, such as those for English language learners.
Likewise, professionals must ensure that caregivers and family members have access to a range of supports such as the following: A variety of professionals, in collaboration with families and caregivers, is involved in the selection and delivery of services and supports.
Collectively, the professionals should possess knowledge of typical and atypical patterns of development in the domains of cognition, communication, emergent literacy, pre-academic interventions, and motor, sensory, and social—emotional functioning, as well as the capacity to collaborate effectively.
Audiologist—specializes in the nonmedical management of hearing and related problems e. The specific needs of the child should determine the mix of professionals who will assist the family and caregivers at home, in the preschool, and in the special education setting.
The provision of services and supports may enhance the learning opportunities for young children who may be at risk for LD but who have not been identified with a specific disability. The services and supports required by children and their families and caregivers vary along a continuum of intensity and may be provided in different settings.
Providing a continuum of services and supports is consistent with a response to intervention RTI model, which is a framework that may be used for identifying school-age students with LD NJCLD, The application of RTI principles has been proposed for preschool-age children, with its characteristic use of different levels of instructional intensity, collaborative problem-solving, early response, and data to inform instruction and monitor progress Coleman et al.
Less intensive services and supports. The initial level of early services and supports for young children at risk for LD would be less intensive and would revolve around daily experiences generally available in any strong preschool program.
Such services and supports may involve assisting caregivers and families in increasing interactions with their children.
Experiences like shared book reading, conversations about current and past events, and family trips to the zoo, market, library, and playground provide opportunities for such interactions and also stimulate conceptual and linguistic development. It is important to provide activities that develop perceptual, coordination, and fine and gross motor skills, such as use of scissors, crayons, finger paints, beads, balls, and puzzles.
Emergent literacy can be encouraged by having books, magazines, and other literacy artifacts available in home, childcare, preschool, and other settings, and by engaging in activities such as word play, drawing, and storytelling. Literacy activities at home, in the preschool, and in other settings can develop print concepts, story sense, phonological awareness, and matching speech to print, and offer opportunities for practicing beginning reading and writing skills Lonigan, More intensive services and supports.
More intensive services and supports may add ongoing, regular consultation with one or more service providers and participation in more structured programs. For preschool-age children, for example, such support might mean an increased emphasis on activities focusing on the acquisition of emergent literacy skills and enrollment in a high quality preschool program that includes more individualized activities.
This has resulted from an increased recognition of the importance of early development to later school success and an increased awareness of the discrepancies in development for young children due to differences in socioeconomic, sociolinguistic, and sociocultural factors.
Most intensive services and supports. If young children do not respond to the earlier levels, more specialized and individualized instruction and intervention strategies may be needed.
Such services would be provided to children with identified disabilities who are eligible to receive special education. Some of these children with disabilities, such as those with developmental delay or speech and language impairment, may be identified later as having LD.
The selection of the service delivery system, including the setting e. State and local agencies need to ensure the availability of a continuum of service delivery options for students with disabilities, provide funding, and promote interagency cooperation among public and private sectors.
Careful development of the individual instructional program is especially important due to the increased recognition that the pre-kindergarten years are a critical period during which intervention efforts are most effective see Guralnick, Have a philosophy of individualized programming based on specific needs with a preference for inclusive practices.
Rely on relevant research to design service delivery models that meet the individual, changing needs of a child over time and that provide opportunities for interactions in natural environments.Educational technology is an inclusive term for both the material tools and the theoretical foundations for supporting learning and initiativeblog.comional technology is not restricted to high technology.
Education technology is anything that enhances classroom learning in the utilization of blended, face to face, or online learning. high quality and popular programmes, Delivering outstanding teaching, Developing a culture of continuous improvement, and Providing an excellent infrastructure to support our teaching and learning.
Embedding digital learning teaching; Embedding inclusion, equity and empowerment; This programme uses community learning approaches to improve outcomes for young people, families and adults. Education Scotland has developed a new resource to help build practitioners' confidence in delivering practical food education.
Review the effectiveness of own delivery of inclusive teaching and learning Identify areas for improvement in own The purpose of the unit is to enable the learner to understand and use inclusive teaching and learning approaches to meet the needs of learners.
It includes how to create a learning. Home Essays Review the effectiveness of Review the effectiveness of own use of inclusive learning and teaching approaches in meeting the needs of all learners. Topics: Better Analyse inclusive learning approaches to learning and teaching.
Abstract. The objective of this study was to determine effective teaching strategies and methods of delivery for patient education (PE). A systematic review was conducted and reviews with or without meta-analyses, which examined teaching strategies and methods of delivery for PE, were included.