Most journalists learned these fundamentals our first day in a newsroom or a journalism classroom. But we occasionally need reminding and refreshing. These questions can guide your reporting as you interview, observe and research to gather the facts for your story. They can guide your writing, whether you are live-tweeting an event, writing a brief summary or a video script or crafting a long narrative.
Posted on August 20, by Peter These are notes on W. My notes on several other poems are collected here. Kallman and a few others would recognize this particular bar, and maybe they knew or could imagine what Auden really did on the evening when Hitler invaded Poland. In that sense, the poem was a private communication.
But it was destined for The New Republic and written in an accessible style about events in the world. Thus it was also an effort to communicate to a public of strangers. In that sense, it is private: Throughout the poem, Auden wants us to consider the relationship between private and public.
A related question is the role of lyric poetry, which can be private, subtle, and confessional, or transparent, impersonal, and political—or both. Auden considers these five poems to be trash which he is ashamed to have written.
But to communicate effectively in the public sphere requires a degree of simplification and even falsification. In subsequent stanzas, Auden will reverse the direction, exploring how private desires and sins influence public evils.
I mention the time lag because he views that infamous day in global perspective: But the last four lines of the stanza offer a completely different explanation: I and the public know What all schoolchildren learn, Those to whom evil is done Do evil in return.
No logical connective links this quatrain to the previous seven lines: This quatrain is problematic because it suggests that the wrong of invading Poland is somehow justified by sins the aggressors had sustained.
Is that a reference to Versailles? To the plight of the German working class? An alternative reading might be that those wronged by Hitler will inevitably strike back later, perpetuating the tragic cycle.
In any case, the broader argument is that people are cruel to each other, and the massive cruelty of Blitzkrieg is just a manifestation of our everyday sin.
The third stanza suddenly takes us back to ancient Greece, perhaps enacting the way that an educated person would turn from one topic to another over a solitary alcoholic drink on a terrible night.
Exiled Thucydides knew All that a speech can say About Democracy, And what dictators do, The elderly rubbish they talk To an apathetic grave He implies that it is propaganda; in fact, self-interest explains all politics.
Auden is a citizen of a combatant nation who is guiltily safe in neutral Manhattan.
The Western democracies chose to be neutral in the Spanish Civil War, which made them complicit to fascist rule. All the conventions conspire To make this fort assume The furniture of home; Lest we should see where we are, Lost in a haunted wood, Children afraid of the night Who have never been happy or good.
Stanza 6 pulls the public and the private together. The root cause is always the same: For the error bred in the bone Of each woman and each man Craves what it cannot have, Not universal love But to be loved alone.
Each human beings wants the benefits of romance sex, and the exclusive concern of another person without the ethical requirements of loving back and loving everyone. Stanza 8 explains that he will describe both private sin and public tyranny accurately and critically and will call on us to be better to one another: All I have is a voice To undo the folded lie, The romantic lie in the brain Of the sensual man-in-the-street And the lie of Authority Whose buildings grope the sky: There is no such thing as the State And no one exists alone; Hunger allows no choice To the citizen or the police; We must love one another or die.
Auden later hated the last of these lines. Auden the license to say such things? That is the critique—one that Auden himself made very strongly in later years.The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue.
May 26, · The 5 Ws help gather important information to complete a story, and are critical components of writing. This song helps kids understand what each W stands for, and why each adds an important element to a writing piece.5/5(6).
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English grammar can be tricky to master. Even native English speakers struggle with the rules that govern their language. But the collection of English grammar worksheets and activities on this page should give students some good practice with this broad topic. An effective case study starts with a great interview.
These five tips will help you ask relevant questions and elicit answers that build persuasive case studies.